Books

Islamic Occasionalism


  • Muhtaroglu, Nazif. Occasionalism East and West, Kalam Research and Media, 2017.
  • Khaled El-Rouayheb. Islamic Intellectual History in the Seventeenth Century: Scholarly Currents in the Ottoman Empire and Maghreb. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Al-Ghazālī, Al-Ghazālī’s Moderation in Belief, Aladdin M. Yaqub (tr.), University of Chicago Press, 2013.
  • Al-Ashari, Abu Hasan. A Vindication of the Science of Kalam, (Risala fi Istihsan al-Khawd fi ‘Ilm al-Kalam) in The Theology of al-Ash‘ari, ed. Richard J. McCarthy. Beyrouth: Imprimerie Catholique, 1953.
  • _______________.Book of Aphorisms, (Kitab al-Luma‘) in The Theology of al-Ash‘ari. ed. Richard J. McCarthy. Beyrouth: Imprimerie Catholique, 1953.
  • _______________. Letter to the People of Frontier (Risala ila at-Tagr bi-Bab al-Abwab). published by Kıvameddin Burslan with an introduction, in the Darulfunun Ilahiyat Fakultesi Mecmuasi 7-8 (1928).
  • Gimaret, Daniel. La doctrine d’al-Ashʿarī. Paris: Cerf, 1990.
  • Al-Baqillani. Kitab al-Tamhid. ed. R. McCarthy. Beirut, 1957.
  •                         . al-Insaf. ed.Izzat al-Attar al-Husayni. Cairo, 1950.
  • Karadaş, Cağfer. Bakillani’ye göre Allah ve Alem Tasavvuru. Bursa: Arasta Yayınları, 2003.
  • al-Bayḍāwī, ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿUmar, and Maḥmūd al-Iṣfahānī. Nature, Man and God in Medieval Islam. 2 vols. Translated by Edwin E. Calverley and James W. Pollock. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2002.
  • Al-Ghazali. The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-falasifa), a Parallel English-Arabic Text. ed. and trans. M. E. Marmura. Provo (Utah): Brigham Young University Press, 1997.
  •                         . Ihya’ al-Ulum al-Din. 5 vols. Cairo: Lajnat Nashr al-Thaqafa al-Islamiyya, 1957-1959.
  • ____________ . al-Iqtisad fi l-i’tiqad, eds. I.A. Cubukcu and H. Atay. Ankara: Nur Matbaası, 1962.
  •                         . Kitab al-Arba‘in fi Usul al-Din. ed. Muhammad M. Jabir. Cairo: Maktabat al-Jundi, 1964.
  •                         . al-Maqsad al-Asna, ed. F.A. Shehadi. Beyrouth, 1982.
  •                         . Iljam al-‘Awamm ‘an ‘Ilm al-Kalam ed. Muhammad al-Mu‘tasim bi-llah al-Baghdadi. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi, 1985.

  •                         . Mihakk al-Nazar fi l-Mantiq. ed. Muhammad Badr al-Din al-Na‘sani and Mustafa al-Qabbani. Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Adabiya, 1925.
  •                          . Mi‘yar al-‘Ilm fi Fann al-Mantiq. ed. Muhyi al-Din Sabri al-Kurdi. Cairo: Al-Matbaa al-Arabiyya, 1927.
  • Al-Juwayni. al-Shamil fi Usul al-Din, ed. A. al-Nashshar. Alexandria, 1967.
  •                          . A Guide to Conclusive Proofs for the Principles of Belief (Kitab al-Irshad ila Qawati‘ al-Adilla fi Usul al-I‘tiqad), tr. Paul E. Walker. Reading: Garnet Publishing, 2000.
  • Al-Khayyat, Abu al-Husayn. Kitab al-Intisar. ed. A. Nader. Beirut, 1957.
  • Al-Maturidi. Kitab al-Tawhid. ed. Bekir Topaloğlu and Muhammed Aruçi. Ankara: İsam Yayınları, 2002.
  • Al-Pazdawi. Ehl-i Sünnet Akaidi, tr. into Turkish. Şerafettin Gölcük. İstanbul: Kayihan Yayınları, 1988.
  • Al-Shahrastani, Kitab al-Milal wa al-Nihal. ed. M. Badran. Cairo, 1955.
  • Al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din. Kitab al-Arba‘in. Hyderabad, 1934.
  • Ibn Furak. Mujarrad Maqalat al-Ash‘ari, ed. Daniel Gimaret. Beyrouth: Dar el-Machreq Editeurs Sarl, 1987.
  • Ibn Humam. Kitab al-Musayara. İstanbul: Çağrı Yayınları, 1979.
  • Nursi, Said. Risale-i Nur Külliyatı. 2 vol.s. İstanbul: Nesil Yayınları, 2001.
  •                         . The Reasonings (Münazarat), Hüseyin Akarsu tr. New Jersey: Tughra Books, 2008.
  •                        .The Words. (Sözler), Şükran Vahide tr. İstanbul: Sözler Neşriyat, 1992.
  •                        .Letters (Mektubat), Şükran Vahide tr. İstanbul: Sözler Neşriyat, 1997.
  •                       .The Flashes (Lemalar), Şükran Vahide tr. İstanbul: Sözler Neşriyat, 1995.
  • Taftazani, Sadaddin and Sadr al-Shari‘a. Sharh al-Talwih ala Tawdih li Matni al-Tankih fi Usul al-Fiqh, vol. I. Beirut: Dar al-Kotob al-Ilmiyah, no date.
  • Taftazani, Sadaddin. A Commentary on the Creed of Islam (Sharh al-Aqaid), E. E. Elder tr. NY: Columbia University Press, 1950.
  • Aydın, Ömer. Kur’an Işığında Kader ve Özgürlük. İstanbul: Beyan Yayınları, 1998.
  • Badeen, Edward. Sunnitische Theologie in osmanischer Zeit. Würzburg, Germany: Ergon, 2008.
  • Calverley Edwin E. and James W. Pollock. Nature, Man and God in Medieval Islam. 2 vol.s Leiden: Brill, 2002.
  • Ceric, Mustafa. Roots of Synthetic Theology in Islam: A Study of The Theology of Abu Mansur Al-Maturidi. Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1995.
  • Dallal, Ahmad. An Islamic Response to Greek Astronomy: Kitab Ta‘dil Hay’at al-Aflak of Sadr al-Shari‘a. Leiden: E.J. BRILL, 1995.
  • Dhanani, Alnoor. The Physical Theory of Kalam: Atoms, Space, and Void in Basrian Mu‘tazili Cosmology. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994.
  • Davidson, Herbert A. Proofs for Eternity, Creation, and the Existence of God in Medieval Islamic and Jewish Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • Fakhry, Majid. Islamic Occasionalism and its Critique by Avorres and Aquinas. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1958.
  • Frank, Richard. The Metaphysics of Created Being according to Abu l-Hudhayl Al-‘Allaf. Istanbul: Netherlands Historische-Archeologisch Instituut, 1966.
  •                         . Creation and the Cosmic System: Al-Ghazâlî & Avicenna, Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1992.
  •                         . Al-Ghazali and the Ash’arite School. Durham: Duke University Press,1994.
  • Gimaret, Daniel. Théories de l’acte humain en théologie musulmane. Paris: Vrin, 1980.
  • Griffel, Frank, Al-Ghazali’s Philosophical Theology: An Introduction to the Study of his Life and Thought. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Günaltay, M. Şemsettin. Kelam Atomculuğu ve Kaynağı Sorunu. ed. İrfan Bayın. Ankara: Fecr, 2008.
  • Kılavuz, Murat Ulvi. Kelamda Kozmolojik Delil. İstanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 2009.
  • Ormsby, Eric L. Theodicy in Islamic Thought. The Dispute over al-Ghazali’s “Best of All Possible Worlds.” Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
  • Perler, Dominik and Ulrich Rudolph. Occasionalismus: Theorien der Kausalität im Arabisch-Islamischen und im Europäischen Denken, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2000.
  • Pines, Salomon. Beiträge zur Islamischen Atomenlehre. London: Garland Publishing,1987.
  •                        . Studies in Islamic Atomism. trans. Michael Schwarz. ed. Tzvi Langerman. Jaruselam: The Magnes Press, 1997.
  • Renan, Ernest. Averroès et l’averroïsme. Essai historique. Paris: Librairie Auguste Durand, 1852.
  • Rudolph, Ulrich. Al-Maturidi und Die Sunnitische Theologie in Samarkand. Leiden: Brill, 1997.
  • Thiele, Jan. Kausalität in der mu’tazilitischen Kosmologie. Das Kitab al-Mu’aththirat wa-miftah al-mushkilat des Zayditen al-Hasan ar-Rassas. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2011.
  • Wolfson, Harry A. The Philosophy of Kalam. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.


Occasionalism in Medieval Philosophy


  • Augustine, The City of God V.9, VII.30, VIII.16, IX.9, X.12, XI.16, XXI.4,7
  • Mourant, John A. “Augustine on Miracles.” Augustinian Studies 4 (1973).
  • Moses Maimonides, Guide for the Perplexed, I.73
  • Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, III.65-71
  • Weinberg, Julius. A Short History of Medieval Philosophy, Ch.s XI, XII

Occasionalism in Cartesian Philosophy


  • Tad M. Schmaltz. Early Modern Cartesianisms: Dutch and French Constructions, Oxford University Press, 2017
  • Muhtaroglu, Nazif. Occasionalism East and West, Kalam Research and Media, 2017.
  • De Cordemoy, Gerauld.. Oeuvres Philosophiques. ed. Pierre Clair et Francois Girbal. Paris: Presses Universitaries de France, 1968.
  • Ablondi, Fred. Gerauld de Cordemoy: Atomist, Occasionalist, Cartesian, Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 2005.
  • Battail, Jean-Francois. L’Avocat philosophe Gérauld de Cordemoy. The Hague: Mrtinus Nijhoff, 1973.
  • Descartes, Rene. Oeuvres de Descartes, 11 vols. ed. Charles Adam and Paul Tannery. Paris, 1897.
  •                          . The Philosophical Writings of Descartes. Vol: I & II. tr.s John Cottingham and Robert Stoothoff and Dugald Murdoch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  •                           . The Philosophical Writings of Descartes. Vol: III. tr.s John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, Dugald Murdoch and Anthony Kenny. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Garber, Daniel. Descartes’ Metaphysical Physics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1992.
  • Menn, Stephen. Descartes and Augustine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Schmaltz, Tad M. Descartes on Causation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Louis de La Forge. Traite de L’sprit de L’homme. Ceneve: Marc Michel Bousquet & Comp. 1725.
  •                           . Treatise on the Human Mind. tr. Desmond M. Clarke. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.
  • Malebranche, Nicolas. Ouvres Completes de Malebranche. 20 vols. ed. A. Robinet. Paris: Vrin, 1958-1978.
  •                           . Dialogues on Metaphysics and on Religion. trans. N. Jolley and D. Scott. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  •                         .The Search after Truth. trans. T. M. Lennon and P. J. Olscamp. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
  •                        .Treatise on Nature and Grace. P. Riley, trans. Oxford: Clarendon Press,1992.
  • Church, Ralph W. A Study in the Philosophy of Malebranche. London: Kennikat Press, 1970.
  • Nadler, Steven. Cambridge Companion to Malebranche. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Peppers-Bates, Susan. Nicolas Malebranche: Freedom in an Occasionalist World. London: Continuum, 2009.
  • Pyle, Andrew. Malebranche. London: Routledge, 2003.
  • Radner, Daise. Malebranche: A Study of a Cartesian System. Amsterdam: Van Gorcum Assen, 1978.
  • Rome, Beatrice. The Philosophy of Malebranche. Henry Regnery Company: Chicago,1963.
  • Watson, Richard and Marjorie, Grene. Malebranche’s First and Last Critics. Journal of the History of Philosophy Monograph Series, 1995.
  • Balz, A. G. A. Cartesian Studies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1951.
  • Loeb, Louis E. From Descartes to Hume. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981.
  • Nadler, Steven. Occasionalism: Causation Among the Cartesians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Watson, Richard. The Breakdown of Cartesian Metaphysics. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1998.
  • Alain de Lattre. L ‘occasionalisme d’Arnold Geulincx, Éditions de Minuit, 1967. ->Link to Ebook
  • Specht, Rainer. Commercium mentis et corporis, Uber Kausalvorstellungen im Cartesianismus. Stuttgart: Friedrich Frommann Verlag, 1966.
  • Prost, Joseph. Essai sur L’Atomisme et L’Occasionalisme dans la philosophie Cartésienne. Paris: J. Vrin, 1907.

Occasionalism in Modern Philosophy


  • Jolley, Nicholas. Causality and Mind: Essays on Early Modern Philosophy.Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Ott, Walter. Causation and Laws of Nature in Early Modern Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • McCracken, C.J. Malebranche and British Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
  • Guéroult, Martial. Études sur Descartes, Spinoza, Malebranche, et Leibniz. Hildesheim: Olms, 1970.
  • Robinet, André. Malebranche et Leibniz. Paris: Vrin, 1955.
  • Stieler, Georg. Leibniz und Malebranche und das Theodiceeproblem. Darmstadt: Otto Reichl, 1930.